Glossary

A

ADHESION Scar tissue occurring in the abdominal cavity, fallopian tubes, or inside the uterus. Adhesions can interfere with transport of the egg and implantation of the embryo in the uterus. ADRENAL ANDROGENS Male hormones produced by the adrenal gland which, when found … Continue reading

B

BASAL BODY TEMPERATURE (BBT) Your body temperature when taken at its lowest point, usually in the morning before getting out of bed. Charting BBT is used to predict ovulation. Biphasic: A BBT pattern consistent with ovulation and the formation of the … Continue reading

C

CANDIDIASIS (YEAST) An infection that may be uncomfortable and itchy and may impair fertility. CAPACITATION A process that sperm undergo as they travel through the womans reproductive tract. Capacitation enables the sperm to penetrate the egg. CERVICAL STENOSIS A blockage of the cervical … Continue reading

D

D&C (DILATATION AND CURETTAGE) A procedure used to dilate the cervical canal and scrape out the lining and contents of the uterus. The procedure can be used to diagnose or treat the cause of abnormal bleeding and to terminate an unwanted … Continue reading

E

ECTOPIC PREGNANCY A pregnancy outside of the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube. Such a pregnancy can rarely be sustained, and often leads to decreased or complete loss of function in the affected tube. Methotrexate is now used to dissolve the … Continue reading

F

FALLOPIAN TUBES Ducts through which eggs travel to the uterus once released from the follicle. Sperm normally meet the egg in the fallopian tube, the site at which fertilization usually occurs. FEMALE KALLMAN’S SYNDROME A condition characterized by infantile sexual development and … Continue reading

G

GALACTORRHOEA A clear or milky discharge from the breasts associated with elevated prolactin. GAMETE A reproductive cell: Sperm in men, the egg in women. GAMETE INTRAFALLOPIAN TRANSFER (GIFT) A technique that may be used in lieu of in vitro fertilization for women with … Continue reading

H

HIRSUITISM The overabundance of body hair, such as a mustache or pubic hair growing upward toward the navel, found in women with excess androgens. HOSTILE MUCUS Cervical mucus that impedes the natural progress of sperm through the cervical canal. HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN … Continue reading

I

ICSI INTRACYTOPLASMIC SPERM INJECTION A procedure in which a single sperm is injected into an egg. See intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection article. IMMATURE SPERM (GERMINAL CELL) A sperm that has not matured and gained the ability to swim. In the presence of illness … Continue reading

K

KALLMAN’S SYNDROME A congenital hypothalamus dysfunction which has multiple symptoms including the failure to complete puberty. KARYOTYPING A test performed to analyze chromosomes for the presence of genetic defects. KLINEFELTERS SYNDROME A genetic abnormality characterized by having one Y (male) and two X … Continue reading

L

LAPAROSCOPE A small telescope that can be inserted into a hole in the abdominal wall for viewing the internal organs; the instrument used to perform a laparoscopy. Used to diagnose and treat a number of fertility problems including endometriosis, abdominal adhesions, … Continue reading

M

MATURATION ARREST A testicular condition in which at one stage of sperm production all sperm development halts throughout all testicular tubules. May result in oligospermia or azoospermia. MEIOSIS The cell division, peculiar to reproductive cells, which allows genetic material to divide in … Continue reading

O

OLIGMENORRHEA Infrequent menstrual periods. OLIGOSPERMIA Having few sperm. OVARIAN FAILURE The failure of the ovary to respond to FSH stimulation from the pituitary because of damage to or malformation of the ovary. Diagnosed by elevated FSH in the blood. OVARIAN CYST A fluid filled … Continue reading

P

PANHYPOPITUITARISM Complete pituitary gland failure. PARLODEL See Bromocriptine PATENT The condition of being open, as with tubes that form part of the reproductive organs. PELVIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASE (PID) An infection of the pelvic organs that causes severe illness, high fever, … Continue reading

R

RESISTANT OVARY An ovary that cannot respond to the follicle stimulating message sent by FSH. Primitive germ cells will be present in the ovary; however, they will not respond to FSH stimulation. RETROGRADE EJACULATION A male fertility problem that allows the sperm … Continue reading

S

SALPINGECTOMY Surgical removal of the fallopian tube. SALPINGOLYSIS Surgery performed to remove adhesions that restrict the movement and function of reproductive organs. SALPINGOSTOMY/FIMBRIOPLASTY Surgical repair made to the fallopian tubes, a procedure used to open the fimbria. SCROTUM The bag of skin and thin … Continue reading

T

TESTICULAR BIOPSY A minor surgical procedure used to take a small sample of testicular tissue for microscopic examination; a test used to diagnose male fertility problems when no other means is available (this is because the biopsy procedure itself may cause … Continue reading

U

ULTRASOUND See Sonogram UMBILICAL CORD Two arteries and one vein encased in a gelatinous tube leading from the baby to the placenta. Used to exchange nutrients and oxygen from the mother for waste products from the baby. UNDESCENDED TESTICLES (CRYPTORCHIDISM) The failure of the … Continue reading

V

VAGINITIS Yeast, bacterial vaginosis, or trichomonas infections of the vagina. Frequent vaginitis may indicate the presence of pelvic adhesions and tubal blockage from other infections, such as chlamydia. Vaginitis may interfere with sperm penetration of the cervical mucus, and the symptoms … Continue reading

X

X CHROMOSOME The congenital, developmental, or genetic information in the cell that transmits the information necessary to make a female. All eggs contain one X chromosome, and half of all sperm carry an X chromosome. When two X chromosomes combine, the … Continue reading

Y

Y CHROMOSOME The genetic material that transmits the information necessary to make a male. The Y chromosome can be found in one half of the man’s sperm cells. When an X and a Y chromosome combine, the baby will be a … Continue reading

Z

ZYGOTE A fertilized egg which has not yet divided. ZYGOTE INTRAFALLOPIAN TRANSFER (ZIFT) An ART in which eggs are removed from a woman’s ovaries, fertilized with the man’s sperm in a lab dish, and the resulting Zygotes are transferred into the woman’s … Continue reading